Scales to Measure Loneliness

UCLA Loneliness Scales
Three-Item UCLA Loneliness Scale and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale
Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). A Short Scale for Measuring Loneliness in Large Surveys: Results From Two Population-Based Studies. Research on aging, 26(6), 655–672. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027504268574
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2394670/
(See Table 1, Page 11)

UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3)
Russell D. W. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of personality assessment, 66(1), 20–40. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2
https://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2%3Fcasa_token%3DxgtdyOzkBr0AAAAA:0XHldeYAsfh36V3caNOouGQbWk8JB_tHomFG77GM0OLUev_flKRjN5OOZQ6XuoyOLPrKuSVazwGMJw&hl=en&sa=T&oi=ucasa&ct=ucasa&ei=Po60X_rwKI6TygS966SwCA&scisig=AAGBfm2k6sEy2RnXBaYcMHRluPA-JVPBiA

Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale
Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of personality and social psychology, 39(3), 472–480. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.39.3.472
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7431205/
[Behind a pay wall]

De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale
Gierveld, J. D. J., & Tilburg, T. V. (2006). A 6-Item Scale for Overall, Emotional, and Social Loneliness: Confirmatory Tests on Survey Data. Research on Aging, 28(5), 582–598. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027506289723
[Behind a Pay Wall]

Summary of Loneliness Scales (including Campaign to End Loneliness
Campaign to End Loneliness Importance of measuring loneliness: tools and scales [Presentation]http://www.cfoa.org.uk/download/60174

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020.Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press: https://doi.org/10.17226/35663
https://www.nap.edu/read/25663/chapter/8
*Page 107 – Measurement of Social Isolation and Loneliness

Summary of Loneliness Scales
https://www.campaigntoendloneliness.org/wp-content/uploads/Summary-of-Loneliness-Scales.pdf

Loneliness Measurement Guidance
https://www.campaigntoendloneliness.org/wp-content/uploads/Loneliness-Measurement-Guidance1.pdf
 Page 11 – The Campaign to End Loneliness Measurement Tool
 Page 14 – The De Jong Gierveld 6-Item Loneliness Scale
 Page 17 – The UCLA 3-Item Loneliness Scale
 Page 20 – Single-item questions

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