Racism and Mental Health

Posted June 16, 2020

Allyship

Anti-Oppression LibGuide: Allyship-Take Action | New York Tech Library
https://libguides.nyit.edu/c.php?g=666045&p=4848336

Guide for Being Strong White Allies | Racial Equity Tools
https://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/kivel3.pdf

How to be an Ally: Anti-Blackness at the Intersections Panel Recap | Centre for Social Innovation
https://socialinnovation.org/how-to-be-an-ally-anti-blackness-at-the-intersections-panel-recap/

Resources to Strengthen Your Ability to Be A Strong Ally (Page 9) | Community Initiatives – City of Toronto
https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/96a4-t4a-abr-bmh-resources.pdf

What Can I Do To Become An Ally? One Black Canadian Woman Answers | By Blacks
https://byblacks.com/main-menu-mobile/opinion-mobile/2558-what-can-i-do-to-become-an-ally-one-black-canadian-woman-answers


Microaggression

Examples of Racial Microaggressions
https://sph.umn.edu/site/docs/hewg/microaggressions.pdf

Hall, J. M., & Fields, B. (2015). “It’s Killing Us!” Narratives of black adults about microaggression experiences and related health stress. Global qualitative nursing research, 2, 2333393615591569.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2333393615591569

Nadal, K. L. (2014). A guide to responding to microaggressions. In Cuny Forum (Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 71-6).
https://advancingjustice-la.org/sites/default/files/ELAMICRO%20A_Guide_to_Responding_to_Microaggressions.pdf

Cabral, Cynthia. (2017). Perceived microaggressions, therapeutic alliance, and client therapist racial ethnic match in Black, Latino, and White mental health counseling experiences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 78(5-B(E)), No Pagination Specified.
https://search.proquest.com/openview/cb59b9815f3ece79c6b22ceef69c6697/1?pqorigsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
[Dissertation – Preview Only]

Moody, A. T., & Lewis, J. A. (2019). Gendered Racial Microaggressions and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Black Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(2), 201–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684319828288
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0361684319828288
[Behind a Paywall]


Mental Health Care

Articles

Alang S. M. (2019). Mental health care among blacks in America: Confronting racism and constructing solutions. Health services research, 54(2), 346–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13115
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407345/

Anderson, R. E., Jones, S., Navarro, C. C., McKenny, M. C., Mehta, T. J., & Stevenson, H. C. (2018). Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Black American Youth and Families: A Case Study from the EMBRace Intervention. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(5), 898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050898
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981937/

Bartholomew, M. W., Harris, A. N., & Maglalang, D. D. (2018). A call to healing: Black Lives Matter movement as a framework for addressing the health and wellness of Black women. Community Psychology in Global Perspective, 4(2), 85–100.
http://siba-ese.unisalento.it/index.php/cpgp/article/viewFile/18704/16603

Crowell, C., Mosley, D., Falconer, J., Faloughi, R., Singh, A., Stevens-Watkins, D., & Cokley, K. (2017). Black Lives Matter: A Call to Action for Counseling Psychology Leaders. The Counseling psychologist, 45(6), 873–901. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000017733048
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5713902/

Molina, K. M., & James, D. (2016). Discrimination, internalized racism, and depression: A comparative study of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the US. Group processes & intergroup relations : GPIR, 19(4), 439–461. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430216641304
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5386401/

Nazroo, J. Y., Bhui, K. S., & Rhodes, J. (2020). Where next for understanding race/ethnic inequalities in severe mental illness? Structural, interpersonal and institutional racism. Sociology of health & illness, 42(2), 262–276. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13001
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028120/

Sue, D. W., Nadal, K. L., Capodilupo, C. M., Lin, A. I., Torino, G. C., & Rivera, D. P. (2008). Racial microaggressions against Black Americans: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 330-338.
https://www.dickinson.edu/download/downloads/id/7105/racial_microaggressions.pdf

Williams, J. C., Holloway, T. D., & Ross, D. A. (2019). Witnessing modern America: violence and racial trauma. Biological psychiatry, 86(11), e41-e42.
https://www.biologicalpsychiatryjournal.com/article/S0006-3223(19)31750-0/fulltext

Danice L. Brown, Sha’Kema Blackmon, Felicia Griffin-Fennell, Taylor Darden & Dana Bannerman (2020) Intersectional Perspectives of Black Women’s Mental Health: Strategies for Clinical Training, Women & Therapy, DOI: 10.1080/02703149.2020.1729467
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02703149.2020.1729467
[Behind a Paywall]

Mosley, D. V., Hargons, C. N., Meiller, C., Angyal, B., Wheeler, P., Davis, C., & Stevens-Watkins, D. (2020). Critical consciousness of anti-Black racism: A practical model to prevent and resist racial trauma. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000430
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32212758/
[Behind a Paywall]


Other Resources

Beyond cultural competence – cultural safety and implications for clinical practice | Evidence Exchange Network for Mental Health and Addictions
https://www.eenet.ca/resource/beyond-cultural-competence-cultural-safety-and-implications-clinical-practice
(Webinar)

Black Experiences in Health Care Symposium Report | Sinai Health System
https://www.mountsinai.on.ca/about_us/health-equity/pdfs/SHS-BEHC-report-FINAL-aoda-final.pdf

McKenzie, K., Agic, B., Tuck, A., & Antwi, M. (2016). The case for diversity: Building the case to improve mental health services for immigrant, refugee, ethno-cultural and racialized populations. Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2016-10.
https://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/sites/default/files/2016-10/case_for_diversity_oct_2016_eng.pdf

Stress & Trauma Toolkit for Treating African Americans in a Changing Political and Social Environment | American Psychiatric Association
https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/cultural-competency/education/stress-and-trauma/african-americans

Working with African American/Black Patients | American Psychiatric Association
https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/cultural-competency/education/best-practice-highlights/best-practice-highlights-for-working-with-african-american-patients


Impact of Racism on Mental Health

Articles

Bor, J., Venkataramani, A. S., Williams, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2018). Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. Lancet (London, England), 392(10144), 302–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31130-9
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376989/

Kwate, N. O., & Goodman, M. S. (2015). Cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of racism on mental health among residents of Black neighborhoods in New York City. American journal of public health, 105(4), 711–718. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302243
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358177/

Pieterse, A. L., Todd, N. R., Neville, H. A., & Carter, R. T. (2012). Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1.
https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/cou-59-1-1.pdf

Other Document

Physiological & Psychological Impact of Racism and Discrimination for African-Americans
https://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/ethnicity-health/racism-stress


Racism, Health Equity and Social Determinants of Health

National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health (2018). Let’s Talk: Racism and Health Equity (Rev. ed.). Antigonish, NS: National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health, St. Francis Xavier University.
http://nccdh.ca/images/uploads/comments/Lets_Talk_Racism_and_health_equity_EN_web.pdf

Medlock, M., Weissman, A., Wong, S. S., Carlo, A., Zeng, M., Borba, C., Curry, M., & Shtasel, D. (2017). Racism as a Unique Social Determinant of Mental Health: Development of a Didactic Curriculum for Psychiatry Residents. MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, 13, 10618. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10618
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788030/

Paradies, Y., Ben, J., Denson, N., Elias, A., Priest, N., Pieterse, A., Gupta, A., Kelaher, M., & Gee, G. (2015). Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS one, 10(9), e0138511. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138511
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580597/


Social Services and Organizations

Canadian/Ontario

Black Health Alliance
http://blackhealthalliance.ca/

Black Legal Action Centre
https://www.blacklegalactioncentre.ca/

Black Youth Helpline
https://blackyouth.ca/

Canadian Race Relations Foundation
https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/

Federation of Black Canadians
https://fbcfcn.ca/

 

GTA

Across Boundaries
https://www.acrossboundaries.ca/

Anti-Black Racism & Mental Health | Community Initiatives – City of Toronto
https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/96a4-t4a-abr-bmh-resources.pdf

Black, Indigenous and People of Colour Peer Support Group | Mood Disorders Association of Ontario
https://www.mooddisorders.ca/node/1285

Black Lives Matter – Toronto
https://blacklivesmatter.ca/

Caribbean African Canadian Social Services
https://cafcan.org/our-services/family-services/mental-health-counselling/

TAIBU Community Health Centre
http://taibuchc.ca/en/home/


Other Resources

Books
25 Books About Being Black in Canada | CBC Books
https://www.cbc.ca/books/25-books-about-being-black-in-canada-1.5596949

This List of Books, Films and Podcasts About Racism Is a Start, Not a Panacea | National Public Radio https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2020/06/06/871023438/this-list-of-books-films-and-podcasts-about-racism-is-a-start-not-a-panacea

Toolkit
Dismantling Anti-Black Bias in Democratic Workplaces: A Toolkit | AORTA Anti-Oppression Resource & Training Alliance
http://aorta.coop/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/anti-black-bias-packet-print-1.pdf

Websites
Black/African American | National Alliance on Mental Illness
https://www.nami.org/Your-Journey/Identity-and-Cultural-Dimensions/Black-African-American

Black & African American Communities and Mental Health | Mental Health America
https://www.mhanational.org/issues/black-african-american-communities-and-mental-health

The Black Indigenous People of Colour Project
https://www.thebipocproject.org/

Black Mental Health Day, March 2, 2020
https://www.blackmentalhealthday.ca/

Black Mental Health Day | jack.org
https://jack.org/Stories/Black-Mental-Health-Day

Mental Health Resources for African Americans
https://adaa.org/african-americans

Resources for Ending Anti-Black Racism | Canadian Women’s Foundation
https://canadianwomen.org/blog/ending-anti-black-racism/

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